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You are at: » Commentary » It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s Super-Migrant!
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Last month, viewers around the world watched in disbelief as MamoudouGassama, 22, scaled a Parisian apartment building to lift a young boy to safety, an act executed with such breathtaking speed and precision that it earnt him the moniker ‘Spider-man of the 18 th [arrondissement].’

Gassama, who is originally from Mali, was invited to meet with French President Emmanuel Macron, during which he was awarded a medal for courage and swiftly honoured with French citizenship.

What Gassama did was remarkable. But arguably more remarkable is the way in which many of us in the West reacted to the event.

Footage of the event went viral, and swathes of commenters gushed that Gassama’s French citizenship was “well-deserved”. Others remarked that he had “earnt it”.

But is this what it takes to ‘earn’ your place in French society as an immigrant? An act so exceptional that it draws comparisons to spider-man, a literal superhero boasting superhuman powers?

In some ways, it’s hard to imagine that the deluge of praise heaped on Gassama could offer anything but goodwill to migrants in general. But the ‘exceptional immigrant’ narrative can be insidious in what it implies.

Comedian Aamer Rahman flagged the tendency that many of us in the West have to hold migrants and immigrants to a radically different standard to that of ‘local’ populations, tweeting “….watch as this gets used as an example of the standard people must demonstrate to ‘deserve’ citizenship”.

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— Aamer Rahman (@aamer_rahman) May 28, 2018

British-Asian author Nikesh Shukla drew attention to this phenomenon in The Good Immigrant , a collection of essays that hit shelves in 2016 . In the preface, Shukla proffers that:

…the biggest burden facing people of colour in this country is that society deems us bad immigrants—job-stealers, benefit-scroungers, girlfriend-thieves, refugees—until we cross over in their consciousness, through popular culture…to become good immigrants. And we are so tired of that burden.

That is, as immigrants, or indeed locally-born people of colour, we aren’t seen as human by default in the way that white locals are. Instead, our humanity must be earnt. As Shukla remarked in an interview for Vice Magazine : “we’re all bad immigrants until we prove ourselves otherwise”.


since 4.3

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is changed.


Event fired after the command execution when execCommand is called.


This editor instance.


The command name.

The data sent to the command.

The command itself.

The value returned by the command execution.

since 4.5

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If set, the HTML was not inserted into the current selection, but into the specified range. This property is set if the Wholesale Price Sale Online loosefit strap detail trousers Black Julius Authentic Cheap Online Excellent Genuine Cheap Price yaZdqk
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Fired after the paste event if content was modified. Note that if the paste event does not insert any data, the afterPaste event will not be fired.


since 4.6.0

Fired after the Paste form Word filters have been applied.


Pasted content after processing. Changes to this property will affect the pasted content.

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call execution. Usually it is better to use the dataReady event.


The data that has been set.

since 3.5.3

Fired after an undo image is created. An undo image represents the editor state at some point. It is saved into the undo store, so the editor is able to recover the editor state on undo and redo operations.


This editor instance. CKEDITOR.editor.beforeUndoImage

since 4.4.3

Event fired by the editor in order to get accessibility help label. The event is responded to by a component which provides accessibility help (i.e. the a11yhelp plugin) hence the editor is notified whether accessibility help is available.

For example, the expression:

is lifted to:

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is more general, and applies to anything which has an implementation of both Monad and Alternative :

In general, a comprehension takes the form [ exp | qual1, qual2, …, qualn ] where quali can be one of:

To translate a comprehension [exp | qual1, qual2, …, qualn] , first any qualifier qual which is a guard is translated to guard qual , using the following function:

Then the comprehension is converted to do notation:

Using monad comprehensions, an alternative definition for m_add would be:

While do notation gives an alternative meaning to sequencing, idioms give an alternative meaning to application . The notation and larger example in this section is inspired by Conor McBride and Ross Paterson’s paper “Applicative Programming with Effects” Perfect Online Shop Chantal lounge pants Blue Morgan Lane Official For Sale Buy Cheap Pre Order Top Quality Cheap Online zxN5h

First, let us revisit m_add above. All it is really doing is applying an operator to two values extracted from Maybe Int . We could abstract out the application:

Using this, we can write an alternative m_add which uses this alternative notion of function application, with explicit calls to m_app :

Rather than having to insert m_app everywhere there is an application, we can use idiom brackets to do the job for us. To do this, we can give Maybe an implementation of Applicative as follows, where <*> is defined in the same way as m_app above (this is defined in the Idris library):

Using <*> we can use this implementation as follows, where a function application [| f a1 …an |] is translated into pure f <*> a1 <*> <*> an :

Idiom notation is commonly useful when defining evaluators. McBride and Paterson describe such an evaluator [1] , for a language similar to the following:

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